Macular Degeneration Diagnosis and Co-Management

Age-Related Macular Degeneration  

Age-related macular degeneration, or AMD, is an eye disease that blurs your central vision. People who have AMD can’t see things directly in front of them but still have their peripheral vision. Having AMD affects your ability to drive, see faces, read, or do other common activities.  

AMD occurs when aging causes damage to the macula, which is the back part of the retina that controls central vision. Age-related macular degeneration is a common eye disease and is the leading cause of vision loss. This disease can develop in one eye or both eyes. 


Types of Age-Related Macular Degeneration 

There are two types of age-related macular degeneration: dry AMD and wet AMD.  

  • Dry age-related macular degeneration is the most common type of the disease. Dry AMD occurs when the macula gets thinner because of the aging process. There are three stages of dry AMD: early, intermediate, and late. People who are in the early stages of dry AMD may not notice any vision loss for an extended period, up to several years, so they don’t realize they have the disease. The only way to catch it in the early stages is through a comprehensive eye exam. There is no treatment for late-stage dry AMD.  
  • Wet AMD is less common, but this type of disease causes vision loss much faster than dry AMD. This type of AMD occurs when blood vessels grow abnormally and damage the macula. There are treatment options for wet AMD.  

Symptoms of Age-Related Macular Degeneration 

Age-related macular degeneration is a progressive eye disease, which means symptoms will get worse over time. In the early stage of dry AMD, there are no symptoms. Intermediate dry AMD may cause mild symptoms such as blurry vision or trouble driving at night or seeing in low light. In late-stage AMD, you may notice a blurry area in your central vision, and colors will seem less vivid. You may also see straight lines appearing as wavy lines. If you have this symptom, please contact the eye care team at Decatur Family Eye Care as soon as possible. 


Risk Factors for Age-Related Macular Degeneration 

Your risk of developing age-related macular degeneration increases as you age. People over the age of 55 are more likely to have age-related macular degeneration. Other risk factors for developing AMD include:  

  • A family history of age-related macular degeneration 
  • Smoking 
  • High blood pressure  
  • Heart disease 
  • High sun exposure  
  • Being overweight 
  • A poor diet low in antioxidants 
  • Being Caucasian  

People can lower their risk of developing AMD by not smoking, getting regular exercise, maintaining healthy blood pressure and cholesterol levels, and eating healthy foods including leafy green vegetables and fish.   

Diagnosing Age-Related Macular Degeneration  

The doctors at Decatur Family Eye Care utilize the latest technology to properly diagnose eye diseases, including age-related macular degeneration.  

Amsler Grid 

Your doctor at Decatur Family Eye Care may ask you to look at an Amsler grid. This is a simple square that contains a grid pattern with straight lines and a dot in the middle. When used correctly, this test can detect blurry, distorted, or blank spots in your vision.  

Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) 

During the eye exam, your doctor may use optical coherence tomography (OCT) to look closely at the retina. This machine scans the retina and provides your doctor with detailed images of the macular and the retina. Your doctor may use special drops to dilate your eyes before this test is conducted because it makes it easier to examine the retina.  

You will be asked to sit in front of the OCT machine so that the eye scan can be completed. Nothing touches your eye, and the test is painless. The test takes about 5–10 minutes to complete. 


Treatment for Age-Related Macular Degeneration  

Treatment for AMD depends on the type and stage of the disease.  

There is no treatment for early AMD, but catching it early through a comprehensive eye exam and making lifestyle changes, such as eating healthy, exercising, and quitting smoking, can help. There are some things that can be done for dry AMD in the intermediate stage, such as taking supplements, which may slow down the progression of the disease. There is currently no treatment for late-stage dry AMD, so people who are diagnosed with late-stage dry AMD must live with some amount of vision loss.  

Remember, in the early stages of the most common form of AMD, there are usually no obvious symptoms. The best way to catch it early is to come in for regular comprehensive eye exams.  

Contact us at Decatur Family Eye Care to schedule an appointment for a comprehensive eye exam today.